Dyenamo Orange                           


    During 2012 and 2013, Dyenamo Orange (D35) has been established worldwide as 

    a reference organic dye for DSSCs. Excellent device stability has been obtained both

     under light and after at least 1000 h storage in darkness at temperatures of 85°C. 

    The absorption spectrum of D35 makes it interesting also for indoor application due 

    to a good match with fluorescent light. Moreover, it has been concluded that 

    Dyenamo Orange (D35) is an excellent choice for see-through DSSC devices, due to 

    high performance, good stability (also at 85°C), and an attractive orange color.

    Full name: 


    cyanoacrylic acid

    Alternative name: 


    CAS number: 



    E0 = 1.04 V vs. NHE 

    λ max = 500 nm (31 000 M-1cm-1) 

    λ em = 597 nm (ethanol) 

    λ em = 658 nm (dichloromethane) 

    E0-0 = 2.18 eV 

    MW = 863.11 g/mol


    • J. Mater. Chem., 2009, 19, 7232–7238. DOI: 10.1039/b911397p 
    • D35 wrks without co-adsorbents: 

    J. Phys. Chem. C 2010, 114, 2799–2805. DOI: 10.1021/jp908552t 

    • D35 is efficient in combination with cobalt complex redox mediators: 

    J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 16714–16724. DOI: 10.1021/ja1088869 

    • D35 with tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) redox mediator: 

    RSC Advances, 2012, 2, 1083–1087. DOI: 10.1039/c1ra00877c 

    • D35 in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: 

    Adv. Funct. Mater. 2011, 21, 2944–2952. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002319 

    • D35 as co-sensitizer: 

    Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012, 100, 173512. DOI: 10.1063/1.4707374 

    Chem. Commun., 2012, 48, 10727–10729. DOI: 10.1039/c2cc35597c